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The oesophagus,also known as the food pipe, is a muscular tube that serves as a conduit for moving food and drink from the mouth to the stomach.

  • Gender: The incidence of esophageal carcinoma is generally higher in men than women in most countries.
  • Tobacco: Smoking is one of the major risk factor for developing esophageal squamous carcinoma. Smokers have a 5-fold risk of developing this disease compared to non-smokers
    The “chewing of areca nut” (often mixed with tobacco), is common in Southeast Asia and has been linked to the development of esophageal cancer.
  • Alcohol: Excessive alcohol intake is a risk factor for squamous carcinoma.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus
  • Obesity

  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Worsening indigestion or heartburn
  • Chest pain, pressure or burning
  • Coughing or hoarseness of voice
    Early esophageal cancer typically causes no signs or symptoms.

Ulcers are breaks in the protective mucosal lining of the digestive tract that can vary in size (both in diameter and depth) and location.

Ulcers are the result of the breakdown of the mucosa, which may occur as a result of excessive gastric acid secretion. One common cause of peptic ulcer disease is infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen can also contribute to mucosal injury of the upper digestive tract and lead to peptic ulcer disease.

A liver abscess is a collection of pus in the liver caused by bacteria, fungi, or parasites. You may have more than one abscess. The liver makes enzymes and bile that help digest food and gives your body energy. It also removes harmful material from your body, such as alcohol and other chemicals.

  • Traveling to places where infection is common
  • Age older than 70 years
  • Medical conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, or a weak immune system
  • Medicines, such as steroids or chemotherapy
  • Alcohol
  • Poor nutrition

  • Eat a variety of healthy foods. Healthy foods include fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads, low-fat dairy products, beans, lean meats, and fish.
  • Do not drink alcohol. Alcohol can damage your liver and increase your risk for another abscess. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1ВЅ ounces of liquor.

  • You have a fever.
  • You have a cough or feel weak and achy.
  • You have a rash.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.